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Lepidocybium flavobrunneum  (Smith, 1843)

Escolar
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Lepidocybium flavobrunneum
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Gempylidae (Snake mackerels)
Etymology: Lepidocybium: Greek, lepis = scale + Greek, kybion, -ou = tunna (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 200 - 1100 m (Ref. 44037).   Deep-water; 50°N - 56°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 6181)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Tropical and temperate seas of the world, but probably not occurring in the northern Indian Ocean. Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951). Eastern Atlantic: known from 13°N off Guinea to Lobutu, Angola (Ref. 10816).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6181); common length : 150 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6181); max. published weight: 45.0 kg (Ref. 3403)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 8 - 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-18; Anal spines: 1-2; Anal soft rays: 12 - 14; Vertebrae: 31. Body almost uniformly dark brown, becoming almost black with age. Pelvic fins well developed, with I spine and 5 soft rays (Ref. 9784). Prominent lateral keel on caudal peduncle, flanked by smaller accessory keels above and below (Ref. 26938).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs mainly over the continental slope, down to 200 m and more (Ref. 6181). Migrates upward at night (Ref. 6181). Feeds on squid, crustaceans and a wide variety of fishes (Ref. 6181). Flesh oily and may have purgative properties (Ref. 9784). Sometimes caught by tuna long-liners (Ref. 26938). Marketed frozen and as fish cakes in Japan (Ref. 9302).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Parin, Nikolay V. | Collaborators

Nakamura, I. and N.V. Parin, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 15. Snake mackerels and cutlassfishes of the world (families Gempylidae and Trichiuridae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the snake mackerels, snoeks, escolars, gemfishes, sackfishes, domine, oilfish, cutlassfishes,. scabbardfishes, hairtails, and frostfishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(15):136 p. (Ref. 6181)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7 - 14.4, mean 9.9 (based on 642 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00525 - 0.02186), b=2.98 (2.79 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.67 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tm=4-5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.