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Epinephelus guttatus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Red hind
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Epinephelus guttatus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

环境 / 气候 / 范围 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 100 - ? m (Ref. 89707).   熱帶; 36°N - 8°N, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Paraíba, Brazil (Ref. 57756). The most common species of Epinephelus in the West Indies.
西大西洋: 美國北卡羅萊那州到委內瑞拉。 在西印度群島 Epinephelus 的最普遍種。 巴哈馬,安地列斯群島, 中央的與南美洲海岸.(參考文獻 26938)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 25.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5222); common length : 40.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5217); 最大体重: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5217); 最大年龄: 22 年 (Ref. 31471)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 15-16; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. Scales cycloid except for a ctenoid patch of variable size in the pectoral region. Greenish gray to light brown on the back grading to white ventrally, with numerous well-spaced dull orange-red to brown spots on the head, body and fins. Five faint diagonal bars formed by darker spots on the sides. No saddle-shaped blotch on caudal peduncle or along base of dorsal fin (Ref. 26938); further characterized by having body depth contained 2.7-3.1 times in standard length; head length 2.3-2.4 times in standard length; evenly serrate preopercle, without salient angle; posterior nostril larger than anterior nostril (Ref. 89707).
鳞片圆形的在胸的区域中除了一个可变大小的有栉鳞小区块。 灰绿色到淡褐色在背部上渐层色到腹侧白色的, 有很多的在头部,身体与鳍上有些间隔暗橘红色到褐色的斑点。 五条模糊的斜横带侧边上由较黑的斑点形成了。 没有鞍斑-形状的斑块在尾梗上或者沿着背鳍基底.(参考文献 26938)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Found in shallow reefs and rocky bottoms. Usually solitary and territorial. Feed mainly on crabs (Calapa and Mithrax) and other crustaceans (alpheid shrimps and scyllarid lobsters), fishes (labrids and haemulids), and octopus. Some undergo sexual inversion at 28 cm TL; most fish larger than 40 cm are males. Important in terms of numbers caught and total weight of landings in the Caribbean. Easily approached by divers (Ref. 9710). Hermaphrodite species. Excellent food fish (Ref. 26938). Readily caught on hook and line and easily speared (Ref. 13442).

发现于浅水礁区与岩石底部了。 通常独居性的与领域性。 主要吃螃蟹 ( Calapa Mithrax) 与其他的甲壳动物 (枪虾与 scyllarid 龙虾) ,鱼 (隆头鱼科的鱼与 haemulids) 与章鱼。 一些在 28 公分TL 历经性别转换; 大多数的鱼大于 40 公分是雄性。 重要的根据捕获数与卸鱼重量的总重量在加勒比海。 藉着潜水者容易接近。 (参考文献 9710) 雌雄同体种。 优良的食用鱼.(参考文献 26938) 轻易地在一支钓上面捕获而且容易地猎杀了。 (参考文献 13442)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Females rest on or close to the bottom, while males patrol around an area that consists of 1 to 5 females and defend this territory from other males. Form aggregation and reproduce almost exclusively within the aggregation period (Ref. 8557).西大西洋: 美國北卡羅萊那州到委內瑞拉。 在西印度群島 Epinephelus 的最普遍種。 巴哈馬,安地列斯群島, 中央的與南美洲海岸.(參考文獻 26938)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  有雪卡鱼毒中毒的报导 (Ref. 31172)




人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | 周边海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.01008 - 0.01308), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.12-0.24; tm=3; tmax=17; Fec=96,000).
Prior r = 0.48, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.92, log(r) = -0.73, SD log(r) = 0.33, Based on: 1 M, 4 K, 1 tgen, 1 tmax, 6 Fec records
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   High.