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Epinephelus guttatus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Red hind
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Epinephelus guttatus
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Classification / Names आम नाम | उपशब्द | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ऐकटीनोप्टीरेजी (रेज़-फिन्नढ मछलियाँ) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

पर्यावरण / जलवायु / सीमा पारिस्थितिकी

; समुद्री प्रवाल-भित्ति संयुक्त; औशिनोड़िरोमस (Ref. 51243); गहराई सीमा 100 - ? m (Ref. 89707).   Tropical; 36°N - 8°N, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222)

वितरण देश | ऐफ ऐ ओ क्षेत्र | Ecosystems | संयोग | Point map | भूमिका | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Paraíba, Brazil (Ref. 57756). The most common species of Epinephelus in the West Indies.

Length at first maturity / आकार / वज़न / Age

Maturity: Lm 25.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 5222); common length : 40.0 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 5217); अधिकतम प्रकाशित वज़न: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5217); अधिकतम सूचित उम्र: 22 वर्षो (Ref. 31471)

Short description आकृति विज्ञान | मौरफोमैटरिक्स

पृष्ठीय रीढ़ (सम्पूर्ण): 11; पृष्ठीय सौफट रेज़ (सम्पूर्ण): 15-16; गुदा कांटा 3; ऐनल सौफट रेज़: 8. Scales cycloid except for a ctenoid patch of variable size in the pectoral region. Greenish gray to light brown on the back grading to white ventrally, with numerous well-spaced dull orange-red to brown spots on the head, body and fins. Five faint diagonal bars formed by darker spots on the sides. No saddle-shaped blotch on caudal peduncle or along base of dorsal fin (Ref. 26938); further characterized by having body depth contained 2.7-3.1 times in standard length; head length 2.3-2.4 times in standard length; evenly serrate preopercle, without salient angle; posterior nostril larger than anterior nostril (Ref. 89707).

जीवविज्ञान     शब्द संग्रह (उदाहरणार्थ epibenthic)

Found in shallow reefs and rocky bottoms. Usually solitary and territorial. Feed mainly on crabs (Calapa and Mithrax) and other crustaceans (alpheid shrimps and scyllarid lobsters), fishes (labrids and haemulids), and octopus. Some undergo sexual inversion at 28 cm TL; most fish larger than 40 cm are males. Important in terms of numbers caught and total weight of landings in the Caribbean. Easily approached by divers (Ref. 9710). Hermaphrodite species. Excellent food fish (Ref. 26938). Readily caught on hook and line and easily speared (Ref. 13442).

Life cycle and mating behavior परिपक्व अवधि | पुनरुत्पत्ति | मछलीऔ का अंडे देना | अंडे | Fecundity | लार्वा

Females rest on or close to the bottom, while males patrol around an area that consists of 1 to 5 females and defend this territory from other males. Form aggregation and reproduce almost exclusively within the aggregation period (Ref. 8557).

Main reference Upload your references | संदर्भ | संयोजक : Heemstra, Phillip C. | सहयोगीयो

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31172)




Human uses

मात्स्यिकी: उच्च वाणिज्य; आखेट मत्स्य: हां
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इंटरनेट स्रोत

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.01008 - 0.01308), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
लौटाव (Ref. 69278):  माध्यम, न्यूनतम जनसंख्या दुगनी होने का समय 1.4 - 4.4 वर्ष। (K=0.12-0.24; tm=3; tmax=17; Fec=96,000).
Prior r = 0.48, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.92, log(r) = -0.73, SD log(r) = 0.33, Based on: 1 M, 4 K, 1 tgen, 1 tmax, 6 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.