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Epinephelus guttatus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Red hind
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Epinephelus guttatus
Picture by Bryan, D.

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinoptérygiens (poissons à nageoires rayonnées) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environnement / Climat / Gamme Écologie

; marin récifal; océanodrome (Ref. 51243); profondeur 100 - ? m (Ref. 89707).   Tropical, preferred 26°C (Ref. 107945); 36°N - 8°N, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Paraíba, Brazil (Ref. 57756). The most common species of Epinephelus in the West Indies.

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 25.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 5222); common length : 40.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 5217); poids max. publié: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5217); âge max. reporté: 22 années (Ref. 31471)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Épines dorsales (Total): 11; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 15-16; Épines anales 3; Rayons mous anaux: 8. Scales cycloid except for a ctenoid patch of variable size in the pectoral region. Greenish gray to light brown on the back grading to white ventrally, with numerous well-spaced dull orange-red to brown spots on the head, body and fins. Five faint diagonal bars formed by darker spots on the sides. No saddle-shaped blotch on caudal peduncle or along base of dorsal fin (Ref. 26938); further characterized by having body depth contained 2.7-3.1 times in standard length; head length 2.3-2.4 times in standard length; evenly serrate preopercle, without salient angle; posterior nostril larger than anterior nostril (Ref. 89707).

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Found in shallow reefs and rocky bottoms. Usually solitary and territorial. Feed mainly on crabs (Calapa and Mithrax) and other crustaceans (alpheid shrimps and scyllarid lobsters), fishes (labrids and haemulids), and octopus. Some undergo sexual inversion at 28 cm TL; most fish larger than 40 cm are males. Important in terms of numbers caught and total weight of landings in the Caribbean. Easily approached by divers (Ref. 9710). Hermaphrodite species. Excellent food fish (Ref. 26938). Readily caught on hook and line and easily speared (Ref. 13442).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Females rest on or close to the bottom, while males patrol around an area that consists of 1 to 5 females and defend this territory from other males. Form aggregation and reproduce almost exclusively within the aggregation period (Ref. 8557).

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborateurs

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31172)




Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: hautement commercial; pêche sportive: oui
FAO(pêcheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00983 - 0.01280), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (K=0.12-0.24; tm=3; tmax=17; Fec=96,000).
Prior r = 0.48, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.92, log(r) = -0.73, SD log(r) = 0.33, Based on: 1 M, 4 K, 1 tgen, 1 tmax, 6 Fec records
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   High.