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Epinephelus guttatus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Red hind
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Epinephelus guttatus
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Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Straalvinnigen) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Omgeving / Klimaat / Range Ecologie

; marien rifbewoner; oceanodroom (Ref. 51243); diepteverspreiding 100 - ? m (Ref. 89707).   Tropical; 36°N - 8°N, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222)

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Paraíba, Brazil (Ref. 57756). The most common species of Epinephelus in the West Indies.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 25.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 5222); common length : 40.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 5217); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5217); Maximaal vermelde leeftijd: 22 jaren (Ref. 31471)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 11; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 15-16; Anale stekels 3; Anale zachte stralen: 8. Scales cycloid except for a ctenoid patch of variable size in the pectoral region. Greenish gray to light brown on the back grading to white ventrally, with numerous well-spaced dull orange-red to brown spots on the head, body and fins. Five faint diagonal bars formed by darker spots on the sides. No saddle-shaped blotch on caudal peduncle or along base of dorsal fin (Ref. 26938); further characterized by having body depth contained 2.7-3.1 times in standard length; head length 2.3-2.4 times in standard length; evenly serrate preopercle, without salient angle; posterior nostril larger than anterior nostril (Ref. 89707).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Found in shallow reefs and rocky bottoms. Usually solitary and territorial. Feed mainly on crabs (Calapa and Mithrax) and other crustaceans (alpheid shrimps and scyllarid lobsters), fishes (labrids and haemulids), and octopus. Some undergo sexual inversion at 28 cm TL; most fish larger than 40 cm are males. Important in terms of numbers caught and total weight of landings in the Caribbean. Easily approached by divers (Ref. 9710). Hermaphrodite species. Excellent food fish (Ref. 26938). Readily caught on hook and line and easily speared (Ref. 13442).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Females rest on or close to the bottom, while males patrol around an area that consists of 1 to 5 females and defend this territory from other males. Form aggregation and reproduce almost exclusively within the aggregation period (Ref. 8557).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Medewerkers

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31172)




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Meer informatie

Referenties
Aquacultuur
Aquacultuurprofiel
Kweeklijnen
Genetica
Alleelfrequenties
Erfelijkheid
Ziekten
Verwerking
Mass conversion
Medewerkers
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Geluid
Ciguatera
Snelheid
Zwemstijl
Kieuwoppervlak
Otoliths
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.01008 - 0.01308), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 69278):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (K=0.12-0.24; tm=3; tmax=17; Fec=96,000).
Prior r = 0.48, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.92, log(r) = -0.73, SD log(r) = 0.33, Based on: 1 M, 4 K, 1 tgen, 1 tmax, 6 Fec records
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   High.