You can sponsor this page

Epinephelus guttatus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Red hind
muatnaik fotos/gambar dan video
Pictures | Videos     Sounds | Stamps, Coins | imej Google
Image of Epinephelus guttatus (Red hind)
Epinephelus guttatus
Picture by Bryan, D.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulan sejati > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Lingkungan / Klimat / Range Ekologi

; laut berasosiasi dengan karang; oceanodromus (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 100 - ? m (Ref. 89707).   Tropical, preferred 26°C (Ref. 107945); 36°N - 8°N, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222)

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Paraíba, Brazil (Ref. 57756). The most common species of Epinephelus in the West Indies.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm 25.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 5222); common length : 40.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 5217); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5217); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 22 Tahun (Ref. 31471)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 11; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 15-16; Duri dubur 3; Sirip dubur lunak: 8. Scales cycloid except for a ctenoid patch of variable size in the pectoral region. Greenish gray to light brown on the back grading to white ventrally, with numerous well-spaced dull orange-red to brown spots on the head, body and fins. Five faint diagonal bars formed by darker spots on the sides. No saddle-shaped blotch on caudal peduncle or along base of dorsal fin (Ref. 26938); further characterized by having body depth contained 2.7-3.1 times in standard length; head length 2.3-2.4 times in standard length; evenly serrate preopercle, without salient angle; posterior nostril larger than anterior nostril (Ref. 89707).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Found in shallow reefs and rocky bottoms. Usually solitary and territorial. Feed mainly on crabs (Calapa and Mithrax) and other crustaceans (alpheid shrimps and scyllarid lobsters), fishes (labrids and haemulids), and octopus. Some undergo sexual inversion at 28 cm TL; most fish larger than 40 cm are males. Important in terms of numbers caught and total weight of landings in the Caribbean. Easily approached by divers (Ref. 9710). Hermaphrodite species. Excellent food fish (Ref. 26938). Readily caught on hook and line and easily speared (Ref. 13442).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Females rest on or close to the bottom, while males patrol around an area that consists of 1 to 5 females and defend this territory from other males. Form aggregation and reproduce almost exclusively within the aggregation period (Ref. 8557).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | mitra

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31172)




penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: bernilai komersial tinggi; Ikan buruan: ya
FAO(Perikanan: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

informasi lanjut

Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00983 - 0.01280), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278):  sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.12-0.24; tm=3; tmax=17; Fec=96,000).
Prior r = 0.48, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.92, log(r) = -0.73, SD log(r) = 0.33, Based on: 1 M, 4 K, 1 tgen, 1 tmax, 6 Fec records
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   High.